“Sapiens” and Economic Value

To some extent, Economics is the study of how people produce more (both variation and volume) when they work together. Most of the time people have a place in the world’s economy when they provide value, which is measured by money and credit…mostly.

The book “Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind” by Yuval Noah Harari has me thinking differently about economics. Harari takes us into critical transitions in human history; like the years just before and after the invention of “credit”. According to Harari, “credit” is anchored in the belief that the future will be better than the past. For most of human history, people assumed the reverse. The future was no match for the glory of the past.

Once credit took hold, however, both for good and ill, it allowed for a greater and more frequent transfer of value. Humanity could start to build a future together. And value could begin to be sought out in all corners of the globe. Trade and credit meant that we could do more together. And the more humans worked together to produce what they needed (or wanted) the more the economy grew. With all the benefits of economic growth, humans also witnessed exploitation and abuse of this system. Individuals and institutions figured out how to steal value from others who weren’t in a position to know better or defend themselves.

Unfortunately, trading on stolen value still happens today. But in the greater scheme of things, I find myself wondering about how we’re going to manage value and economic growth in the future. We’re moving from exploiting people to simply eliminating them from the equation all together. If people are not providing direct value to the global economy, will they be able to participate? Will there be huge swaths of people who can’t take advantage of all the value being created because they won’t have anything to offer in exchange for it?

Think of the countries or societies that are generating value and those that aren’t. Countries that don’t generate value fall victim to crime and exploitation. The further they get from full participation in the global economy, the further they get from the benefits of modern society. Disproportionately they end up on the downside of the world’s value systems.

As a result, with no value accessible to them, citizens in these countries migrate toward countries where value is accessible; where they have a chance of participating and producing value of their own. These value destinations, however, have responded by restricting their borders. Also, they attempt to control the flow of value by forcing their hand in trade deals. But these kinds of restrictions are antithetical to what actually makes a global economy work in the first place. We generate value when we work together.

Sure, there’s competition, but ultimately the real wins happen when we engage countries and societies who have been left out. And we all win when we help them generate value. The more overall participation we get, the better we’ll all be. Both because we’ll benefit from what these countries have to offer and because they won’t become feeders for crime and violence.

‘The Cloud’ is Still New

It feels like folks have been talking about ‘the cloud’ forever. But levels of cloud utilization in the form of IaaS, PaaS, etc. have really only ramped up significantly in the last couple years. The tendency is to think that there are ‘cloud’ people who were just born knowing ‘cloud’ and that the chasm between ‘cloud’ and ‘on-prem’ is so great that the ‘on-prem’ folks simply won’t understand this new realm.

Fact is, ‘the cloud’ is still new. And no one is born knowing anything, especially not best-practices around cloud utilization, security, and architecture. Herein lies both risk and opportunity. If we can all just put down our pretensions around cloud know-how and get busy learning, we might actually be able to build, configure and secure our cloud environments in a way that delivers consistent, beautiful results.

But the first step is remind ourselves about how new all of this is, and how revolutionary it is. Organizational leaders, instead of saying, “Hey what do you know about cloud? Oh, you don’t know anything? Okay, bye.” Need to say, “Hey let’s get learning! See what you can find out about the cloud that will help us meet our goals.” Because the reality is, most of us don’t know everything there is to know about the cloud. It is still new! And it is going to still be new for a long time!

If leaders don’t charge their teams with learning, these same leaders will have their business strategies singularly handled by vendors — well meaning as they may be. And the best solutions and the most remarkable features of ‘the cloud’ will never arrive. Innovation happens with a sense of ownership and dedication. This is less likely to happen when innovative work is attempted by 3rd parties who have ample room to over promise and under deliver.

The cloud is still new! Let’s respect that fact and don’t presume that the best solutions live elsewhere. Bring your teams into this new world and get ready to be blown away. Give them a chance to learn and innovate; don’t write them off. Sometimes the best innovations are right under our noses, but we can see them because we’re blinded by the glare of shinny, well-marketed solutions that can be low on substance.

Security Hygiene is Boring and Critical

This has been said many times before by people many times more credentialed than me. There are sexy vulnerabilities out there that take considerable expertise to understand. Then there are vulnerabilities or configurations that are the equivalent of leaving your car door unlocked.

The calculation so often made goes like this: “it hasn’t happened before”, or “I’ll only be gone for a few minutes”.

Oddly, many who have an incredibly honed financial sense about them and who understand that ‘past performance does not equal equal future results’, have great difficulty extending this concept elsewhere. But nowhere is it more applicable than in security. Past performance does not equal future results! (Or you may have been hacked in the past and you don’t know it.)

The oversight that causes an organization to get hacked in the first place is likely something simple. Are you missing two-factor authentication? Are you still using a default login? Is your password “Spring2019” and do you use it everywhere? These are security concerns that don’t take heaps of expertise to understand; they are boring and critical.

Attackers don’t want to work hard to steal data or install ransomware, so they’re likely to look for simple vulnerabilities or poorly configured networks in order to get the job done. Don’t sweat the small stuff, sweat the simple stuff.

“The Cuckoo’s Egg:” An Old Story – New to Me

Two weekends ago I finished reading “Tribe of Hackers: Cybersecurity Advice from the Best Hackers in the World”. (Please read previous blog entry to learn more.) I was amazed at how many of “Tribe of Hackers” contributors recommended an old book, “The Cuckoo’s Egg: Tracking a Spy Through the Maze of Computer Espionage,” which was written by Clifford Stoll in 1989.

The story actually begins at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in 1986. I won’t go into too many details about the setting or the time. In computer years, it was ages ago. So my question: “How could such an old book about tracking down a hacker be so routinely recommended by a slew of highly knowledgeable and well-respected info sec professionals?”

Turns out cybersecurity hasn’t changed much. In “The Cuckoo’s Egg,” the hacker who is being tracked by Stoll, an astronomer, is aided by of the following: 1) default credentials, 2) processes that run as root, but shouldn’t, 3) well-known vulnerabilities, 4) the fact that folks can be fooled into entering their credentials into fake sites, 5) the desire of organizations to not share information, 6) the fact that various US agencies described this sort of attack as not their ‘bailiwick’, 7) the fact that various agencies don’t have the expertise to fully comprehend the risk to their data and network infrastructures, and 8) that organizations could not possibly imagine someone actually penetrating their ‘high security’ environments. I’m sure I’m missing a few, but you get the idea.

Besides being a great old book, published when I was a curious, modem tapping, BBS surfing adolescent, it’s an excellent primer on the foundations of modern cybersecurity. Sure, the technology has changed, but fundamentals haven’t moved an inch. Maybe all cybersecurity professionals have heard of this book except for me, but if you haven’t, consider reading it. Even if you’re not after the education, it’s wonderfully entertaining.

“Tribe of Hackers” Wins the Day

It’s weird how I found out about “Tribe of Hackers: Cybersecurity Advice from the Best Hackers in the World”. I saw a photo on Twitter of a fellow Luther Collage alum, Ben Tomhave, showing that he was featured as one of the ‘tribe’. “What’s this about?” I asked myself.

As it turned out, this was a book soon to be released by Threatcare, a firm that is an active, generous purveyor of learning and community building in cybersecurity.

I love books and learning learning, and I’m relatively new to cybersecurity. Though I would hazard to guess that a majority of people in this field feel like they are ‘relatively new’. For people like me, books like this are pure gold. (I can’t say I’ve read many books like this one, however.)

Jeshua with books.

The crowning glory of this recent publication is thought-diversity. (Yes, I just hyphenated those two words together.) You can read a chapter by one contributor who says that ‘user security awareness’ is the biggest bang-for-the-buck toward improving organizational security. The next will say ‘asset inventory’. I love this.

The bang-for-your-buck question is just one simple example. There is a WHOLE LOT more going on in this book than that. It’s loaded with practical advice on building your career, getting along with others, and learning from your mistakes. Sure there is a lot varying ideas, but they all lead to a few core truths. One of these core truths is that cybersecurity is all about PEOPLE. That is even if you like the term ‘cyber’ which one author explains ‘holds no real meaning any more’. I love this too.

This collection of industry wisdom is a rare find. Hats off to Marcus J. Carey and Jennifer Lin and all the contributors who had the fortitude to put these reflections down on paper for people like me. 🙂 “Tribe of Hackers” wins the day! Check it out: https://www.threatcare.com/tribe-of-hackers/

Postman API Learning, Testing, and Development

I’m pretty late into to the API game. Recently I was on a call with a handful of security engineers and they explained that they couldn’t afford to have their people staring at console screens any more. Instead, they rely almost entirely on API’s to automate and streamline their work. I’ve been hearing about API development forever but I’d not gotten past the first hurdle: how to start. My answer to this is Postman.

Once you have an API you want to consume, you can start doing ‘POST’ and ‘GET’ requests pronto and see results immediately. Also, one critical tipping point for me was when I watched a number of the introductory videos that Postman provides. For example, I didn’t understand what the ‘Test’ section was for. The videos demonstrated that this is where you can write JavaScript to traverse the JSON files which are the results of your requests.

Currently, I’m only using a free account. I’m in learning mode, but as I move toward doing more work with API’s in the future, I’ll absolutely be using Postman to test and verify my efforts. It’s also a great introduction in the security advantages and disadvantages of using API’s.

Anyone else who has a desire to dig into API’s and consider what they can do to add value to your work, try Postman. And don’t forget to check out a few of their tutorial videos.

Discovering “2600 Magazine: The Hacker Quarterly”

Not long ago I did one of those “Strengths Finder” assessments put out by the folks at gallupstrengthscenter.com. At the top of my “strengths” list was the designation “Learner”. It essentially confirmed what I already almost knew — that I enjoy learning or getting to a point of understanding on a variety of topics.

Recently a colleague at work recommended that I consider taking at look at the 2600 Magazine. So I did. I read the Kindle version of the most recent edition. What I really enjoy about reading the Hacker Quarterly is that it is filled with articles written by people who love to learn and understand things, specifically related to computers and technology.

Also, as someone who works in cyber security, it is exceedingly helpful for me to understand the types of vulnerabilities that are written about in Hacker Quarterly articles. For example, I read an article by an individual who was able to ‘investigate’ a very larger number of routers in Malaysia. Initially, he had resource constraints, but discovered that by using a Spot Instance at AWS he could considerably broaden his reach at a very low cost: ten dollars. I’ll be seeking to understand these AWS Spot Instances and the impact they may have on the security of organizations in the future.

By and large the spirit of the “Hacker Quarterly” is centered around learning and understanding. And the culture of the group is such that criminal activity is frowned upon, though they do skirt the edges of legality from time to time. To have a window into this world is marvelous. I’m now reading through a whole ‘digest’ of issues from the past year. And if you’re a “Learner” like me, I suggest you do the same. Here’s their website: https://www.2600.com/

Holiday Hacking with SANS

Perpetual learning is paramount for folks in any profession, but I’ve found that for individuals who work in cyber security it is absolutely critical. A significant part of the work I do involves knowing what risks lurk both in the wild (and internally) that can stand in the way of an organization’s future success. Staying up with these risks, mitigation techniques, and controls is vital.

There are all types of learning that help new concepts find a home in my brain. One comprehensive learning experience that I recommend for anyone in cyber security is an event put out each year by SANS, which is an organization that trains cyber security professionals. The event is called the SANS Holiday Hack Challenge.

This year 9-year-old son helped me in ways that blew my mind. His little mind went after small details that I thought were insignificant that turned out to be a pretty big deal. He was very excited by what he was able to uncover…and so was I.

The SANS Holiday Hack challenge introduces cyber security professionals and pen-testers to new technologies and opens their minds to risks and mitigation techniques that they had not previously considered. I greatly enjoy their ‘terminal challenges’ which provide hints toward solving objectives. Never before had I decrypted http2 traffic using Wireshark and SSL keys. So awesome! Here’s the link for this years’ challenge which has been a wild ride for me, to say the least: https://www.holidayhackchallenge.com/2018/.

Stop in and poke around. Solve a terminal challenge or two then put it on your holiday to-do list for next year. You won’t regret it!

Seeing the Cloud

How much of the world’s IT infrastructure is in the cloud now and much of it will be in the cloud in five years? I’m sure there is nearly solid data somewhere to answer those questions. Regardless, it is happening and it won’t be long until most IT infrastructure is in the cloud.

Oddly, though, in my conversations with other IT professionals, it seems like we’re finding we’ve arrived late to the party. With the advent of “the cloud” organizations are finding that there are all sorts of solutions out there that don’t necessarily need the involvement of traditional IT. In much of the IT world, our perception is that this process is more gradual when in fact it is accelerating.

So the real question is not whether “the cloud” is coming, but whether we see it coming. If we want to make sure cloud implementation is done properly and doesn’t completely hose our respective organizations, we must learn as much as we can in a very short period of time.

Nearly every day I find myself reading about cloud security risks right along side incredible cloud solutions for problems that would normally be much harder to solve. At the same time, many cloud solutions create problems that we’ve never seen before. With the flip of a switch something private can become public: see S3 buckets. And it isn’t so much that the cloud is insecure, but how we connect to the cloud, whether this is through our API infrastructure or open ports that maybe shouldn’t be…open. The only answer I have for all of this is that we need to learn, learn, learn, learn…and fast.

Jeshua

People Hacking: What does the future hold?

So, generally, the easiest way for hackers to get into an organization is by convincing users do to something: click on an email attachment or a link, make a phone call, share information, etc. For all the technological advances that have sprung forth in the past decade, this is still among greatest challenges faced by security professionals: figuring out how to keep people from following hackers’ instructions.

Our biggest vulnerability is also our greatest asset. We can make thoughtful decisions quickly. And sometimes our decisions aren’t so thoughtful because we’re in the midst of doing other things, or generally too distracted to slow down and think through what is being asked of us. This little glitch in our code is all an attacker needs.

Exploiting this human vulnerability is all an attacker needs to get us to act in a way that is not in our best interest. This is the nature of a hacker-victim relationship. But are there other ways that people are getting hacked that maybe aren’t as overt as this? Think of the decisions we make daily. How many of them are in our best interest or the best interest of our friends and family.

We make snap decisions all the time that aren’t really based on sound logic. I bet any one of us can look back over the course of the case and think about an action we took that wasn’t ideal. It’s a given. If we didn’t make decisions relatively quickly, our brains would grind to a halt and we’d become mostly ineffective at making our way through this world. But as technology gets better and better at humans hacking other humans (think targeted advertising through machine learning algorithms), we should pause to ask ourselves whether we’re on the right track. Will this lead us to a better humanity? Just throwing that question out there. It can go a myriad of different ways. Thanks for reading.

Jeshua